Galinsky spends several pages demonstrating not only the purpose behind the structure, but describing in some detail the way it appeared in its original form.
Reorganizing these in a virtually Cleisthenic fashion, Augustus harmonized several social classes at once. Yet for all his beneficence, Augustus had a dark side that Galinsky finally draws attention to at the close of this penultimate chapter.
Galinsky closes his discussion in this chapter by turning to the Temple of Apollo Palatinus. Nevertheless, it is hard for me to forget Tacitus' general appraisal of Augustus' treatment of the Roman populace: Less satisfying is Galinsky's dismissal of the problem of Ovid's exile f.
That Augustus influenced his portrait development directly is also surely correct. This was in part because he was, like a god, a bestower of benefits upon mankind. These human touches give this monument its power, distinguishing its humanity from the "relentless monotony of imperialism" exemplified in the monuments of other despots.
Augustus was the true benefactor of the city and his name reflected his auctoritas: His argument funnels to Aeneas' particular decision about whether or not to spare Turnus.
Significant French contributions include G. But was it really like that at the time? Similar treatment is given to material evidence e.
The structure is partly chronological, partly topical. All of this leads rather nicely into a discussion of Augustan poetry. Such reluctance is the only steady feature of the otherwise evolving expansion and diversification of the worship of Augustus in the east.
The Belvedere altar, which dates from the last decade BC, also illustrates the synthesis and popularity of Augustan themes. That aside, however, Galinsky certainly does a good job of interpreting Augustus' reforms in the best light possible.
He notes that, like Augustan art, the literature of the period demands the "active participation" of the reader: Each was aere perennius. Whether or not these same ancilia of Numa were depicted on the clipeus virtutis, presented to Augustus in 27 v.
I recommend Zanker's discussion Zanker, of how the beautifully minted coinage of Octavian offers "a case of aesthetics in the service of political ends" Zanker, Whether or not these same ancilia of Numa were depicted on the clipeus virtutis, presented to Augustus in 27 v.
Later in the 20s, Augustus merely responded to a changing situation, abdicating the consulship after his illness in He demonstrates that Augustus himself seems to have made the association, as the inclusion of caryatids in the Temple of Mars Ultor also suggests, harking back to the Erechtheum cf.
Throughout the east, Octavian resisted the idea that he should himself be referred to as theos; rather, he allowed shrines to be set up to himself only by non-citizens and only when his person was specifically linked to the goddess Roma.
But in the Greek east it was the emperor himself, rather than merely his aura, that was divine. His argument begins with a most intelligent discussion of the clipeus virtutis and analysis of each of the four virtues named on it.
Galinsky considers also the frescoes from Augustus' famous "Syracuse" sc. I cannot unequivocally accept the idea that a renaissance of literature and art is more likely to come about in a basically supportive environment.
X, The Augustan Empire, 43 B. This chapter is in some ways the strongest, in other ways the least satisfying in the study. Turning to Ovid's transcendent quality, Galinsky writes that for the Metamorphoses "the guiding auctoritas of the poet is narrative and not moral"a formulation with which most will agree.
Galinsky again, however, seems to get bogged down a bit by the propaganda problem. Following Menichetti MEFR 98 Galinsky believes that the colossus at the culmination of the left porticus originally depicted Alexander, and only later, under Claudius, was its head changed to that of Augustus Galinsky also calls attention to the association of the Apollo temple with the god Sol, whose chariot adorned its roof.
The representation of Caelus recalls the cuirass of the Prima Porta Augustus, while the quadriga depicted below it, Galinsky suggests, represents the apotheosis of Julius Caesar He begins his discussion with general remarks, echoing a theme with which he had concluded the previous chapter, namely that Augustan art and literature require a certain participation on the part of the audience.
Furthermore, there was the obvious problem of the coexistence of monarchy and republic. All of this, to my mind, is markedly propagandistic. Galinsky concisely addresses the difference between the potestas of Julius Caesar and the "more nuanced" auctoritas of Augustus, a distinction that he will return to at the close of the book.
His argument begins with a most intelligent discussion of the clipeus virtutis and analysis of each of the four virtues named on it.Bryn Mawr Classical Review Karl Galinsky, Augustus: and the polyvalence and invitation to response that characterizes the best Augustan art.
Ch. 7 treats imperial administration, Romanization, and the Roman economy in the age of Augustus. And a final chapter canvasses some of the divergent assessments of Augustus over time, from.
by Karl Galinsky Grand political accomplishment and artistic productivity were the hallmarks of Augustus Caesar's reign (31 BC to AD 14), which has served as a powerful model of achievement for societies throughout Western history. Art and Literature in Augustan Rome The beginning of this time period comes with the death of Julius Caesar and the rise to power of his nephew, Octavius.
He was in the Second Triumvirate that was formed to maintain order in Rome. As pointed out recently in these pages (BMCR ) there are quite a few current books about Augustus intended as introductions in English. Galinsky (who, full disclosure, directed the reviewer’s dissertation many years ago on a non-Augustan topic), enters a field occupied by some of the.
Indeed, the book is a fitting culmination of Galinsky’s scholarly career to date, in that he is uniquely placed to speak with equal authority about Augustan literature and Augustan art. The age of Augustus, commonly dated to 30 BC--AD 14, was a pivotal period in world history.
A time of tremendous change in Rome, Italy, and throughout the Mediterranean world, many developments were underway when Augustus took charge and a recurring theme is the role that he played in shaping their direction.5/5(2).Download